Adderall is a psychostimulant, a drug from the class of phenethylamines. In some countries, it is used in the treatment of attention deficit and hyperactivity and narcolepsy. Also, it is illegally used as a cognitive enhancer, both an aphrodisiac and for achieving a euphoric effect. The drug is a mixture of two amphetamine salts, stereoisomers and inactive components. Salts are the active ingredients, distributed as follows: 75% – Dextroamphetamine (right-rotary isomer) and 25% – Levoamphetamine (left-handed isomer).
This remedy works by increasing the activity of neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain cells. Adderall duplicates many chemical and pharmacological reactions of endogenous neurotransmitters, especially phenethylamine and methylphenethylamine, the latter isomer of amphetamine, which is produced in the human body.
Adderall is generally well tolerated and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD. The most common side effects are cardiovascular, such as increased heart rate, and psychological, such as euphoria or anxiety. Large doses of the drug are likely to impair cognitive function and cause rapid muscle breakdown. Drug addiction is a serious risk of abuse of this substance, but it occurs very rarely in the case of therapeutic use. Very high doses can lead to a psychotic state (for example, delirium and paranoia), which is rarely seen with a therapeutic dosage even with prolonged use.
Studies using magnetic resonance imaging discover that long-term drug treatment leads to a decrease in abnormalities in the brain structure and functions in patients with ADHD, improves the functioning of certain brain regions, such as the caudate nucleus in the basal ganglia.
Current models of ADHD suggest that it happens because of functional impairment in some mediator systems, including a decrease in dopamine neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic region and norepinephrine in the synapses in the blue spot and the prefrontal cortex.
Adderall is available in immediate-release tablets or sustained-release capsules.
Therapeutic doses of the drug increase productivity in solving both complex and repetitive tasks. Higher dosages disrupt short-term memory and cognitive processes. It increases endurance and reaction time, primarily due to inhibition of dopamine reuptake.
- Drug abuse;
- Heart disease;
- Neurotic diseases;
- Glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure);
- Hyperthyroidism (excessive production of thyroid hormone);
These tablets are prescribed under constant supervision if the patient has bipolar disorder, depression, hypertension, liver and kidney diseases, psychosis, Raynaud’s syndrome, convulsions.
- Physical: hypertension or hypotension, Raynaud’s syndrome (decrease in blood flow to the extremities), tachycardia, erectile dysfunction, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, dry mouth, difficulty urinating, reduction or acceleration of the motility of the digestive tract.
- Psychological: Mood changes, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, obsessive states. Psychoses occur very rarely when using the drug as prescribed.
- Pathological over-activation of the mesolimbic pathway that connects the areas of the ventral lid plays a central role in the formation of drug addiction.
- Drug addiction is a serious risk when Adderall is used in non-medical purposes but is unlikely to result from medical use in the dosages prescribed. Tolerance is formed quickly with Adderall abuse.
- Persons receiving long-term treatment with Adderall and other similar drugs with sudden discontinuation of the intake report a limited withdrawal syndrome, which disappears within 24 hours after their last dose.
- Symptoms of withdrawal include anxiety, depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, lack of motivation, insomnia, or drowsiness.
Nowadays, online pharmacies offer Adderall without a prescription. But remember, only doctor may prescribe appropriate dosage.
Tags: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, human health